By Md. Momin Uddin
[Abstract: This paper makes an attempt to look into the position of women in the pre and post independence India and shows how Narayan portrays women characters in his novels written during this period. Born and brought up in a conservative, orthodox Hindu society Narayan saw the miserable plight of women locked up within the confines of houses. They were denied the rights of speech and choice and were treated as if they had been puppets, not human beings. Narayan chose his women characters from this male dominated orthodox society which had developed a completely male favoured ideological structure to keep women subordinate and subservient to men. But since Narayan wanted to bring about a change in the status of women, he did not portray all of his women characters as completely silent and blindly loyal to all old values of society indiscriminately. While the old are loyal to the age old customs, the young ones question some practices. Against the male favoured ideological structure which bereft women of their freedom, individuality and strength, Narayan wanted to develop a different set of principles for women to emancipate them from the male servitude. This paper shows how his women deconstruct the culturally accepted beliefs about women’s position in India and reconstruct a new position to establish them as human beings in their own light.]
The greatest problems with women are that living long in the heavily patriarchal society they got adjusted to the male tastes and completely forgot that they were a different gender having a different nature. They remained women only physically and became like men in thoughts and beliefs, forgetting the differences of their female personality: they thought like men; and they believed like men. As a result, what the patriarchal society thought about or for them did not appear strange to them. The burning of widows in their husbands’ pyres, or widows’ wearing white dresses resembling burial cloths or abstaining from cooked spiced food did not seem strange to the women themselves. It never occurred to them that this treatment was a cruelty on them by men and a conspiracy of patriarchalism to make them inferior, Thus, the treatment that is termed today as ‘gender discrimination’ was a social discrepancy unconsciously accepted by women as their fate. Narayan wanted to bring about a change to this miserable state of women. He makes his intention clear in his autobiography, My Days:
I was somehow obsessed with a philosophy of Woman as opposed to Man, her constant oppressor. This must have been an early testament of the “Women’s Lib” movement. Man assigned her a secondary place and kept her there with such subtlety and cunning that she herself began to lose all notions of her independence, her individuality, stature and strength. A wife in an orthodox milieu of Indian society was an ideal victim of such circumstances (119).
Narayan’s objective was to make his women conscious of their separate entities: they would think and believe like women, not like men. That’s why we find in all of his novels women modern in thought and belief although the old women—mothers and grandmothers—observe the century-old customs of India with devotion. Hence, what importantly Narayan does is create new women out of the old fashioned, who are home makers but educated, intelligent, assertive and able to be self dependent and many of them are both home makers and professionals working in different fields from temple dancer to family planning worker. A critical reading of all novels of Narayan shows that he has started a movement toward the liberation of women that he has gradually developed in the novels written in succession from The Bachelor of Arts to The Painter of Signs. In all of these novels there is one or more than one female character who is out either half way or full way of this orthodox, conservative society to assert the right to live with dignity and freedom.
We find two generations of women in his novels: the first generation consisting of mothers and grandmothers who are loyal to the old social system with all its tradition, customs, taboos and superstitions, and the second generation consisting of young women, who, unlike the old women, are educated and assertive. They speak out their voices and assert power whenever possible and necessary. What is significantly mention-worthy about Narayan’s Women’s Lib movement is that his process of liberating women is slow and gradual, not drastic and that he uplifts the condition of women within India’s own tradition, not by following the western feminist trend.
The Women’s Lib movement of Narayan develops through four phases which can be termed as follows:
- Women’s initial dilemma
- Emergence of New Women
- Women’s revolt against subordination but retreating
- Overcoming barriers and achieving freedom
However, the scope being limited in this paper, an attempt has been made to examine how Narayan has portrayed women characters with references to his four pre independence novels and three post independence novels. The novels are: The Bachelor of Arts, The English Teacher, The Dark Room, Mr. Sampath, Waiting for the Mahatma, The Guide, and The Painter of Signs.
Women’s Initial Dilemma:
Since women had long been living in the patriarchal society and got accustomed to their subordinate position, to begin with, many of them, especially old women, were reluctant to incur any change in their status. In fact, they did not feel the need of any change, and if anybody did or said anything contrary to what these women believed, they considered it a blow to the established tradition. In The Bachelor of Arts Chandran’s mother is such a woman. She is happily observing what India’s age old tradition has designated as the duties of women. Her beliefs are those that Indian women have believed from generation to generation from the old days. She neither disbelieves nor questions any established custom. Even beliefs, which appear ridiculous and superstitious today, are strongly believed by her. As we notice, while discussing Chandran’s marriage, she strongly opines that if Malathi’s horoscope does not match with Chandran’s, the marriage between them can never be possible. She is startled beyond limit hearing that Malathi is about sixteen and is still unmarried: “they can’t be all right if they have kept the girl till sixteen. She must have attained puberty ages ago. They can’t be all right” (70). She feels a great load off her mind when she learns that Malati’s horoscope has not matched with her son’s. Chandran—a B A passed man, graduated in modern education—regards this old custom silly but his mother considers she “belonged to a generation which was in no way worse than the present one for all its observances” and she vows that “as long as she lived she would insist on respecting the old customs” (70).
Chandran’s mother is so accustomed to the exiting position of women that she does not consider the custom of giving and taking dowry in marriage a bad practice or an insult on womanhood. She herself thinks of taking a rich dowry for her son from the bride’s family because not having a handsome dowry for her son, she thinks, will degrade the status of their family. When Chandran compares dowry to extortion, she proudly argues that “my father gave seven thousand in cash to your father, and over two thousand in silver vessels, and spent nearly five thousand on wedding celebrations” (84).
Like Chandran’s mother, Krishnan’s mother in The English Teacher, is completely satisfied with her position that the age old tradition of India has given her. She happily observes all of the customs that women need to without questioning any of them. As she says, “Unless I have cleaned the house, I can’t go and bathe. After bathing, I’ve to worship, and only after that I can go near the cows” (29). This portrayal of her character provides us with a glimpse of the traditional Indian setting where women had their well defined tasks and position. The same conservative attitude we notice in the character of Raju’s mother in The Guide. She is startled hearing that Rosie has come to their home alone without being escorted by any man. She reacts, saying: “How courageous you are! In our day we wouldn’t go to the street without an escort” (141). Hearing Rosie’s story she comments: “Living with a husband is no joke, as these modern girls imagine. No husband worth the name was ever conquered by powder and lipstick alone” (154). She tells Rosie that under all circumstances a wife is to be patient and tolerate her husband whatever a man the husband may be like. Husbands may be “good husbands, mad husbands, reasonable husbands, unreasonable ones, savage ones, slightly deranged ones, moody ones, and so on and so forth; but it was always the wife, by her doggedness, perseverance, and patience, that brought him round” (155).
Nevertheless, Chandran’s mother believes in some rights for women. It is true that she seems old fashioned and backdated in her ideas and views on many things: she supports the practice of giving and taking dowry and the custom of sending marriage proposals from the bride’s home first, but she does not think that a woman has no right to choose her husband and that only a man has the right to choose his wife. To her, marriage is not a child’s game, and a woman is not a doll that it can be had by any man if he likes. She believes a girl should have absolute right to choose or refuse somebody as her husband and that there should not be any pressure on her from any quarter in selecting her husband. Because of her belief in and consciousness of such rights and dignity of women she warns her son Chandran—when he is one-sidedly thinking whether he will like the girl named Susila and if he does not, how he will tell the bride’s family that he has not liked their girl—that his marriage with Susila does not depend solely on his liking her; it equally depends on her liking him as well.
Likewise, Raju’s mother—though she is an old fashioned lady believing women to remain loyal to all types of husband whether he is good, bad, mad, deranged or savage—appreciates Rosie’s education and capacity of doing her things by herself. When she learns that Rosie is an M. A., she calls her a brave girl and admires her thus: Good, good, brave girl. Then you lack nothing in the world. You are not like us uneducated women. You will get on anywhere. You can ask for your railway ticket, call a police man if somebody worries you and keep your money. What are you going to do? Are you going to join a government service and earn?” (142).
Emergence of New Women:
While the old women seem to be in dilemma, carrying out the age old customs and conventions obediently without any question and sometimes believing in some rights of women and appreciating girls’ education and capacity of working independently, the young girls manage to have an advanced position in the society and they look forward. They enjoy a considerable freedom in some situations of life. Taboos and other social inhibitions are not so heavily clamped on them. They get access to the right of education and become conscious of the needs and demands of their female personality. They are free, to some extent, from patriarchal chains and have participations at micro levels in family matters. And the emergence of these new women initiates Narayan’s Women’s Lib movement.
The first woman who among all Narayan’s women appears to be enjoying a better position in the tradition bound society of Malgudi is Malathi in The Bachelor of Arts. Malati is young, educated and assertive. She is liberated in speech and movement and is not silenced or fettered by the patriarchal society. She is about sixteen years old, a marriageable girl but enjoys the freedom of having evening walks on the river bank. She stays on the river bank until darkness descends and returns home alone without being escorted by any male members. Thus, she is free and is not forced to be confined always within the house like a show piece. She enjoys the status of an independent human being.
The second woman who enjoys a better position, even better than Malati’s, and secures some rights is Susila in The English Teacher. Susila is educated and enjoys the freedom of speech and movement. She occupies an equally important position in the family with her husband. She is not a passive onlooker of what is done in the family. Instead, she has an equal participation in all decisions of the family matters. This position of Susila in her husband’s family has been possible because of her enriched education. Her reading Ivanboe and Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare is indicative of her rich education. Besides, the other variety of books Susila reads show that Narayan wanted to establish women as modern women who would be enriched in knowledge and education, but who at the same time would foster and enrich Indian traditional reality. Her library contained a book of hymns by a Tamil saint, a few select stanzas of Kamba Ramayana, Palgrave’s Golden Treasury and a leather- bound Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit.
Unlike the old women of her times, Susila is much advanced in her thought. She believes in equality between man and woman. While in other novels of Narayan, people visit temples to seek gods’ and goddesses’ blessings to have only male children and believe: the more children a house has, the more blessed by God the heouse is, Susila is completely satisfied as the mother of a female child. She is determined and even has secured a promise from her husband that Leela would be their only child. She is so firm in her decision that anything her husband said otherwise even just in jest worried her very much.
Women’s Revolts against Subordination but Retreating:
Narayan first shows women as victimized in the tradition bound patriarchal society of India in The Dark Room, a pre-independence novel published in 1938, when women were docile and subservient living under male domination. Yet there was another group of women who were growing conscious of being exploited and victimized. The Dark Room, which Narayan calls his “early testament of “Women’s Lib” movement” (My Days, 119), portrays four women characters: Savitri, Shanta Bai, Gangu and Poni, and all of them in some way or other stand to deconstruct the culturally accepted beliefs about women’s position in the Indian Hindu society. Narayan chooses a woman as the protagonist for this novel, who, like Ibsen’s Nora, metamorphoses into a rebel against the forced loyalty and dedication of women. Savitri, the protagonist, is a middle class housewife having three school-going children. Meek and obedient as she needs to be as a wife in the India of the 1930s, she serves her philandering and bullying husband Ramani until she is middle-aged, digesting all his injustice and betrayal. But she starts resenting when her husband grows intimate with one Shanta Bai, a glamorous woman tempered with western craze. Ramani’s further betrayal makes her realize how helplessly dependent she is upon him. Realizing that all her life she has been treated as a puppet, firstly, by her father before marriage and secondly at her husband’s house, she grows into a rebel against the traditionally defined position of women in Indian society. A meek Savitri turns against the mythical implication of her name, protesting: “I’m a human being. — You men will never grant that. For you we are playthings when you feel like hugging and slaves at other times. Don’t think that you can fondle us when you like and kick us when you choose” (85).
Savitri leaves her husband empty-handed, leaving everything behind given her by him. She attempts to bring an end to her dependency on men and establish her as a human being. But, ironically enough, soon she discovers that a woman cannot be anything else but a dependant on men. She says: “If I take the train and go to my parents, I shall feed on my father’s pension; if I go back home, I shall be living on my husband’s earnings, and then on Babu” (93).
Savitri’s revolt resembles the revolt of Ibsen’s Nora as they both stand against the society that keeps them in servitude. But Ibsen’s Nora comes into conflict with Savitri in that Nora slams the door behind her husband and children never to come back, while Savitri returns in humiliation to Ramani to be his worse-half that she had been long. As A. N. Kaul, in his article entitled “R.K. Narayan and the East- West Theme,” comments: “… unlike Ibsen’s heroine, Narayan does not bang the door but has it banged and that in the end, her dream of feminine independence and dignity over, she returns submissively to the house never again to stray in thought or deed” (qtd in Biswal 50).
Narayan obviously does not advocate female subservience in the conclusion of the novel by bringing Savitri back to her bullying husband. He problemitizes the culturally accepted beliefs about women’s position in the tradition-ridden Indian society by drawing the circumstances under which Savitri feels compelled to walk out of the house and then to come back. The novelist exposes the hypocrisy of the patriarchal society that uses even religion to exploit a woman. Savitri after she has left her house finds a job and a place to stay in a priest’s temple. Fakrul Alam, in his essay “Reading R. K. Narayan Postcolonially”, terms the priest as “the most disagreeable character” saying that “clearly Narayan has no sympathy at all for the official upholder of tradition and religion and caste.”
Savitri’s gaining from her revolt is that, unlike a tradition-bound woman accepting her fate as destined, she accepts her subordinate position only after discovering the reason that makes women subservient to men. As she says to her husband, “We are responsible for our position; we accept food, shelter and comfort that you give, and are what we are” (87).
Again, to promote the status of women, Narayan does not show westernization to be the only way out. Savitri’s rival, the single career woman Shanta Bai who quotes Omar Khayyam, detests Indian mythological films and has an intense liking for Garbo and Dietrich, is depicted as a wrecker of homes. Shanta Bai comes out full way, defying the traditional status of women in the Indian society. She abandons her drunkard husband and her family and thus smashes the walls of the doll’s house. But she perverts her feminine independence by destroying Savitri’s familial peace and by making Ramani a womanizer. Thus, Narayan problemitizes the long established position of women in the tradition bound orthodox society of India through Savitri’s revolt, and shows his abhorrence towards westernized attitude by portraying Shanta Bai negatively as a drifter and wrecker of homes. However, while Savitri is vanquished and Shanta Bai is a wrecker of homes, it is Savitri’s close friend Gangu who succeeds in keeping a balance between tradition and her independence. Gangu is educated and is, as we find, training to be a film star, a professional musician, the Malgudi delegate to the All India Women’s Conference, and a politician. She has in her activities the full support of her school master husband who believes in women’s freedom. Narayan offers another woman in The Dark Room. It is Poni, wife of the blacksmith-burglar who saves Savitri from getting drowned. She is a childless middle aged woman, and as an issueless woman she should be especially vulnerable in that society, but still she is a woman with complete freedom and dominance over her husband. Mari, Poni’s husband, maintains a sweet relationship with his dominating wife who is the only most spirited, and, truly speaking, the bravest character in the novel. Not only that, Poni teaches the vanquished Savitri how to manage and treat a man: “Keep the men under the rod, and they will be all right. Show them that you care for them and they will tie you up and treat you like a dog (105).
Shanti in Mr. Sampath: The Painter of Malgudi revolts against the traditional life of a widow. She refuses to wear white cloths as was customary for them. She becomes the mistress of Mr. Sampath and joins the celluloid world leaving her son to the care of strangers. But finding the outside world hostile and not supportive for women, she eventually comes back to the life traditionally prescribed for a widow in Malgudi.
Savitri and Shanti’s failure in their revolts against the discriminating tradition of Malgudi, instead of stopping the movement here, comes as a source of inspiration for future women. Both of them come back with realizations of what makes them subordinate to men and what made their efforts failed. The future women leaders take lessons from them and equip themselves with the necessary weapons for want of which Savitri and Shanti have failed, and they squash all customs, taboos and other inhibitions that have treated them as dolls and kept subservient to men.
Overcoming Barriers and Achieving Freedom:
Narayan’s women are now much advanced in thought and mentality. They strongly flout all traditional inhibitions and orthodox taboos and come out to work shoulder to shoulder with men in different fields. Homemakers are also conscious of their dignity and rights. The long established traditional concept of woman does not work now and is defied by the young women. Such a young woman is Bharati in Waiting for the Mahatma. Bharati defies the traditional duties of a woman and dedicates her to the service of Gandhi. In fact, Bharati is the most patriotic and most sublime of the characters of this novel as it is only she who out of patriotism joins the movement Gandhi has launched to bring about the independence of India, and all other characters, who are all male, join this movement out of self-interest. While Sriram starts committing crimes, and in defiance of Gandhi’s non-violent programmes, joins Subhas Chandra Bose’s programme of driving the British from India by force, while dishonest people like Jagadish are busy making fortunes unscrupulously in the independent India by playing up their contributions made to the independence war, it is only Bharati, a woman who pursues Gandhi’s principles till the end and is named by Gandhi “daughter of India”. Later during the post-independence violence she accompanies Gandhi all India to establish peace and discipline in the country and, after Gandhi’s death, moves from place to place to finish the unfinished task of the father. Bharati’s participation in the liberation war of India and in the reconstruction of post war India is surely a blow to the taboos which for long had kept women in servitude to men.
The Guide is Narayan’s most famous novel in which he portrays the character of a woman who defies almost all traditional codes for women and comes out full way to establish herself as a human being like Savitri in The Dark Room. While Savitri fails to be independent and establish her as a human being, Rosie in The Guide is successful in her mission. She obtains her freedom and moves all over India alone doing her own work. Thus the failed revolutionary mission of Savitri gets a fulfillment in Roise twenty years later when India had already become independent. The independence of the country had brought not only political changes, the social, economic, and even religious milieus of Indian had also been greatly influenced. A great change also came in the intelligentsia of women. .Rosie, an M.A. in economics, challenges the orthodox Hindu concept of what a woman should be. She leaves her husband who shows his apathy and indifference towards her feelings and moves out of the walls of his family on a path usually unchartered for women in an Indian society.
Rosie is educated—an M.A in economics—and conscious of her own personality and its necessities. Narayan portrays her character with all his sympathy, exposing the hypocrisy of the patriarchal society and showing how miserable the condition of even a highly educated woman was in that society and at the same time showing women gradually getting conscious of their personalities and demands. Rosie gives more importance to the gratification of her personal interest than to the observation of social codes for women. She ignores the taboos and other social practices that thwart her independence and moves on in her own way with her back to the society’s reaction and criticism. When her husband appears to her wanting passion and love and time for her, she enjoys the company of Raju, walking with him all over Malgudi and its surrounding sites, sitting with him beside the river Sarayu in the evenings and even indulging him in her closed room.
Rosie first walks over India’s time honoured tradition by ignoring the established custom of matching horoscopes and caste for marriage—a practice then held to be sacred in Hinduism. Jayant K. Biswal writes about the matching of horoscopes and caste: “For a marriage, horoscopes must be consulted, caste must be considered, and Malgudi holds the old way of marriages decided by parents and horoscopes.” But Rosie marriages one archaeologist husband with no matching of horoscopes and no consideration of caste. Rosie recollects: “I had myself photographed clutching the scroll of the university citation in one hand, and sent it to the advertisement. Well we met, he examined me and my certificate, we went to a registrar and got married” (75).
Narayan’s portrayal of the character of Rosie further questions the position of women and exposes the cruelty and inhumanity of the male dominated Indian society. Rosie is an educated woman but her education fails to promote her status and gives her a better position in the society. As she says: “We are viewed as public women. We are not considered respectable; we are not considered as civilized” (75). Even Marco wants to raise her as a puppet as if she were an illiterate woman unable to understand anything. Thus the society was blind and could not see any difference between an M. A. passed Rosie and an illiterate woman. Rosie finally comes out of this society that treats women as dolls and tries to stand on her own feet firmly.
By throwing both Marco and Raju away from her life, Rosie strongly defies the well-defined place of women in Malgudi where a woman is never allowed to go on her own way, but is made to remain a puppet. An inner strength, until unseen and undiscovered by herself, leads her to soar so far out of Marco’s and even Raju’s reach that neither Raju nor Marco can control her. Raju at last comprehends that “she would never stop dancing … whether I was inside the bars or outside, whether her husband approved of it or not. Neither Marco nor I had any place in her life, which had its own sustaining vitality and which she herself had underestimated all along” (222 – 223).
By tearing the sacred bond of marriage with Marco, Rosie fulfils the unrequited dream of Savitri of The Dark Room.. Savitri comes back like a dead horse to her husband, while Rosie, unlike Savitri, does not go back to her husband to be his worse half, nor does she ever think of going under the guardianship of Raju, rather when she, left by Marco and cheated by Raju, is alone, she is strong and experienced enough to guide herself properly without a Marco or a Raju beside her.
Finally, The Painter of Signs comes echoing the voices of all women of Narayan’s previous novels, who strived to come out by crushing the walls of the “dolls houses.” Like The dark Room, this novel also has a woman named Daisy as the protagonist who defies the traditional setup for women. While Rosie in The Guide, in spite of having a westernized name and marrying in a way absolutely unconventional in an Indian society, still has a traditional woman in herself, as is found in her dependence first on her husband Marco, and then on her lover Raju, Daisy is strikingly modern in her spirit of independence. She rises against the long established marital system of the society only at the age of thirteen when her prospective bridegroom visits her. Her strong sense of individuality becomes evident when she says, “And then they seated me like a doll, and I had to wait for the arrival of the eminent personage with his parents” (131). At this very moment, she decides to break the walls of the doll’s house. She offends the groom on the face and thus offends the whole orthodox tradition. She flees her family, and never again in her life she gets herself reconciled to the idea of a family. Thus, she shatters all routine impressions about women in the familiar background of Malgudi and turns into a bizarre figure roaming the countryside with the mission of family planning. “She has no taboos of her own” (57) and “the only topics she could appreciate are birth control …” (84) with a “sort of unmitigated antagonism to conception” (87) that flagrantly violates the traditional Indian notion that “God gives us children. How can we reject His gift? ” (68), and that “Our shastras say that the more children in a house, the more blessed it becomes” (70). To comment on Daisy’s devotion to her mission, Jayant K. Biswal observes:
With rare exception to her emotionalism at times, Daisy can be said to be nearer to the female version of Marco. . . . both of them are heart and soul dedicated to their projects – one to the archaeological survey in the Memphi hills, the other to the cause of family planning. In Daisy, the cold professionalism of Marco and the revolutionary zeal of Bharati exist together. If Savitri and Rosie revolt against their doll’s houses, Daisy seems to carry their revolt further, even to a hysterical height. If The Dark room is an ‘early testament of the Women’s Lib movement’, The Painter of Signs is its more pronounced representation (55 – 56).
Thus, Daisy comes out of the doll’s house and gives a fulfillment to the dreams of those women in Narayan’s novels, who started the movement.
The way Narayan tries to promote the status of women is significant in that he follows a ‘slow and steady method’ to carry his ‘Women’s Lib’ movement which actually begins in The Dark Room and comes to an apparent fulfillment in The Painter of Signs, encompassing a long journey from Savitri to Daisy via Shanti, Bharati and Rosie. The characteristic feature of Narayan’s Women’s Lib’ movement is that he does not encourage the western wave in the process, nor does he endorse the moribund society of Malgudi. He questions the thwarting taboos and orthodox beliefs that reduce a woman to a plaything of a man and thus creates a new, better position for women, but as an upholder of traditional values, he develops the new position of women within India’s own traditions. His new women are educated, active and independent but do not look like men. Years later the former prime minister of India Indra Gandhi suggested a similar method to promote the status of women. She wrote: “Let the individual woman find what is relevant to her own personality and life. Women are discriminated against and this discrimination must be fought and ended. But not, in my view, by diminishing oneself, or going contrary to one’s instincts” (1 – 33).
 To emancipate women R. K. Narayan was concerned with a philosophy of woman that he has termed in his My Days as Women’s Lib movement.
 Former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandi, in the Foreword to Her Story: An Anthology of Studies in Women’s Problems (1985), edited by Karabi Sen, categorically asserts that “… woman is not merely a supportive character but a human being in her own right, an essential half, neither better nor worse. … Let the individual woman find what is relevant to her own personality and life. Women are discriminated against and this discrimination must be fought and ended. But not, in my view, by diminishing oneself, or going contrary to one’s instincts.]The Anthology is a collection of scholarly essays, documents and materials on woman and gender issues from all over the world.
List of Works Cited
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Biswall, Jayant K. A Crtical Study of the Novels of R.K. Narayan: The Mulgudi Comedy,
New Delhi: Nirmal Publishers & Distributors, 1987.
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. Trans. William Archer. Dhaka: Friend’s Book Corner, 2002.
Narayan, R.K. Mr. Sampath: The Painter of Malgudi. 1949. Myore: Indian Thought
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- – -. The English Teacher. 1945. Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1955.
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- – -. The Painter of Signs, Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1976.
- – -. Waiting for the Mahatma. 1964. Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1964
Sen, Karabi. (ed.). “Editor’s Note: East West Perspective on Women’s Problems” in Her
Story: An Anthology of Studies in Women’s Problems (ed.), Calcutta: Prajan
PhD Seminar Paper written by Md. Momin Uddin, Lecturer, Department of English, Jagannath University